Mature mothers smoking

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Most people understand that smoking increases the risk for heart, vascular, and lung disease. Many do not realize that smoking can also lead to problems with fertility in both men and women. Erectile dysfunction and pregnancy complication rates are also increased with smoking. Chemicals such as nicotine, cyanide, and carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke speed up the loss rate of eggs. Unfortunately, once eggs die off, they cannot regenerate or be replaced. This means that menopause occurs 1 to 4 years earlier in women who smoke compared with non-smokers.
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The Long-Term Effects of Perinatal Nicotine Exposure on Neurologic Development

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The Long-Term Effects of Perinatal Nicotine Exposure on Neurologic Development

Roy P. Martin, PhD, Stefan C. Methods Multivariate analyses of a birth cohort examined the outcomes for children on measures of temperament, behavior, and academic performance in infancy 6 months , at age 5, and at age Results When controlling for maternal psychiatric hospitalization, psychological distress during pregnancy, hospitalization for accidents, socioeconomic status, age, and symptoms of upper respiratory infection and nausea, a range of associations between maternal smoking and child outcomes were observed at different ages studied. Conclusion Despite widespread warning regarding smoking cessation during pregnancy, the literature base on the longer-term effects beyond the neonatal and infant period is less available. This is one of the first studies to investigate the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and child outcomes at several stages of development. The results provide evidence for the lasting effects of smoking during pregnancy on the development of the child.
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Smoking and Infertility

Metrics details. Different studies have shown the advantages of abstinence from cigarette smoking during pregnancy to promote full fetal development. Given that pregnant women do not always abstain from smoking, this study aimed to analyze the effect of different intensities of smoking on birth weight of the newborn. Data were collected from maternal and pediatric medical files and, where data were absent, they were collected by interview during hospitalization for delivery. For data analysis, the effect of potential confounding variables on newborn birth weight was estimated using a gamma response model.
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There is a debate about the extent to which the effect of prenatal smoking on infant health outcomes is causal. Poor outcomes could be attributable to mother characteristics which are correlated with smoking. I find that the effect of smoking on the probability of a low birth weight birth conditional on gestation is slightly more than twice as large in compared to , implying that selection could explain as much as 50 percent of the current association between smoking and birth outcomes. Research has found that maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with retarded fetal growth, prematurity, fetal and neonatal deaths, and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.
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